Here we are almost at the end of the season of Epiphany and I can’t help but think of the epiphanies I’ve experienced. I’ve had my share of “aha!” moments, but most of my epiphanies roll out slowly with the cover peeled back a bit at a time until I realize that I’m seeing or understanding things differently than before. What are your epiphanies like? How do they happen? What new light of understanding illuminates your world so that you see something differently than you did a month ago, a year ago, a decade ago, a generation ago?
God is almost entirely unpredictable. I say almost entirely because the one thing we can predict is that regardless of circumstances, God loves us. God will love us in, with, under and through all things, but trying to predict what that love will look like, what shape it will take, how it will work? That’s crazy-making. God won’t be boxed in.
I’ve been reading a fascinating book called When Jesus Became God by Richard Rubenstein, which is about the fascinating theological and political battle surrounding the Council of Nicaea in 325 CE in which the first prototype of the Nicene Creed was formulated. The Emperor Constantine called the Council to settle a raging theological dispute that pivoted around several theological questions: Was Jesus divine? What did that mean, exactly? What was Jesus’ relationship to the Father? And the Spirit? Was Jesus subordinate to the Father? Was Jesus co-eternal with the Father or was he created?
These questions had simmered in the background since the very beginning of Christianity but most Christians were more or less content to live with differing opinions on these matters. But when Emperor Constantine became a Christian, stopped the persecutions, and made the religion legal, suddenly it seemed important to find official answers and establish doctrine.
The Council of Nicaea was supposed to settle these matters once and for all, but, even though the Trinitarians “won” the debate and formulated most of the language of the Creed, the Arians continued to push for their interpretation of the faith for more than a century and often were in the majority. They believed that Jesus was created by the Father and was not co-eternal, that he had a kindof divinity as the son of God, but was not equal to the Father, was instead subordinate to the Father. And so on. So while the Creed gave language to the first official doctrine of the Church, in practice it really failed to unify the Church in any meaningful way.
Creeds can be useful. Up to a point. They are useful to help clarify what we think. They draw lines that determine the boundaries of what we understand about God and our relationship with God, and help us identify ideas that don’t seem consistent with what we’ve known and experienced of God. They tell us who’s in and who’s out—who agrees with the official line and who does not. But that’s also part of their limitation. God is bigger, deeper, wider and more innovative than any boundaries we draw. God is not a cat. God does not want to curl up inside our box.
Another problem with creeds is that they emphasize some aspects of our faith over others, sometimes even ignoring things that are vitally important. In both the Apostles’ and Nicene Creed, for instance, more and more Christian thinkers are calling attention to what’s being called The Great Comma.
“But have you ever noticed the huge leap the creed makes between “born of the Virgin Mary” and “suffered under Pontius Pilate”? A single comma connects the two statements, and falling into that yawning gap, as if it were a mere detail, is everything Jesus said and did between his birth and his death! Called the “Great Comma,” the gap certainly invites some serious questions. Did all the things Jesus said and did in those years not count for much? Were they nothing to “believe” in? Was it only his birth and death that mattered? Does the gap in some way explain Christianity’s often dismal record of imitating Jesus’ life and teaching?” –Diana Butler Bass, A People’s History of Christianity: The Other Side of the Story
Perhaps the greatest problem with our creeds, though, is that they focus on what we think about God and not what we’re doing to live out our relationship with God. There is nothing in their language about service. There’s nothing about love. There is nothing about hope. There is nothing in them about helping “the least of these brothers and sisters”, or life together in a family of faith. Forgiveness of sins is mentioned but there is no actual call to forgive each other as we have been forgiven. In fact, there is no call to action at all. The creeds are, instead, a historical snapshot of what the men who formulated them (and they were all men) understood to be the most important philosophical premises of their faith. And to be clear, these were the statements formulated by those who won the battles—battles that were sometimes physical and not just philosophical. One can’t help but wonder how Jesus felt about that…or feels now, for that matter.
Yes, we do believe. But more importantly, we are called to follow Christ and to live as the Body of Christ. I wonder… what would a creed look like that focused on that? What language would move our statement of faith out of our heads and into our hearts and hands and feet?